Achieving Affordable System Operational Effectiveness. The Program Manager (PM) can address the return on investment (ROI) of ‘up-front’ expenditures by designing for the optimal balance between performance (technical and supportability), life-cycle costs, schedule, and process efficiency. A development program that targets only some categories of technical performance capability; or fails to optimize system Reliability, Availability, and Maintainability (RAM) technical performance, risks financial burden during operations and support. The PM should therefore design for the optimal balance between technical performance (including RAM), categories of LCC, schedule, and process efficiencies. The affordable system operational effectiveness concept is important because it is what the user sees in terms of how well the system is able to perform its missions over a sustained period as well as the ability to surge given the user's operating budget. In this concept the emphasis is not only on the system's ability to execute its mission or its reliability and maintainability, but also on the cost effective responsiveness of the supply chain. The challenge is in how to relate these interrelated elements into an integrated shared vision across the wide range of stakeholders.