# Reference Documents

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2002 Graphical Comparisons of Two Populations
This START sheet addresses the problem of graphically assessing two populations based on two samples. Such comparisons arise, for example, when analyzing two processes (or two devices) whose...
2002 Empirical Assessment of Normal and Lognormal Distribution Assumptions
This START sheet discusses some empirical and practical methods for checking and verifying the statistical assumptions of Normal and Lognormal distributions. It presents several numerical and...
2002 Statistical Confidence
This START sheet discusses the practical aspects of statistical confidence, i.e., the confidence that we place (from a probabilistic point of view) on a statement about some random phenomenon of...
2002 Statistical Assumptions of an Exponential Distribution
This START sheet discusses some empirical and practical methods for checking and verifying the statistical assumptions of an Exponential distribution and presents several numerical and graphical...
2002 Application of the Poisson Distribution
The Poisson distribution is one of the three discrete distributions, Binomial, Poisson, and Hypergeometric, that use integers as random variables.
2003 Use of Bayesian Techniques for Reliability
World of statistics is traditionally divided into two mutually exclusive camps: Classical and Bayesian. We present the Bayesian approach and some applications to reliability, leaving the subjective...
2003 Reliability Estimations for the Exponential Life
Discuss practical considerations regarding the derivation of reliability estimations in the important case when the underlying distribution is Exponential.
2003 Interoperability
Interoperability is not a new term in the military vocabulary. Interoperability is a primary goal for military operational capability outlined in Joint Vision 2020.
2003 Reduction of Total Ownership Costs (R-TOC) Best Practices Guide
This document was prepared by the Institute for Defense Analyses for the Office of the Director of Defense Systems, under the task, Reduction of Total Ownership Costs. It addresses task objectives to...
2003 The Chi-Square: a Large-Sample Goodness of Fit Test
Most statistical methods (of parametric statistics) assume an underlying distribution in the derivation of their results. There are two approaches to checking distribution assumptions. One is via...
2003 The Applicability of Markov Analysis Methods to Reliability, Maintainability, and Safety
Markov models and Markov analysis methods were relegated to that list of exotic but rarely used stochastic modeling techniques, at least for reliability and maintainability purposes.
2003 Empirical Assessment of Weibull Distribution
Discusses some empirical and practical methods for checking and verifying the statistical assumptions of the Weibull distribution.
2003 Anderson-Darling: A Goodness of Fit Test for Small Samples Assumptions
Most statistical methods assume an underlying distribution in the derivation of their results. Overview of some issues associated with the implementation of the AD GoF test, especially when assessing...
2003 Kolmogorov-Simirnov: A Goodness of Fit Test for Small Samples
Most statistical methods assume an underlying distribution in the derivation of their results. Overview of some issues associated with the implementation of the KS GoF test, especially when assessing...
2004 Combining Data
Combining similar data sets for the purpose of establishing confidence intervals, estimating or forecasting values, modeling data or establishing distributions (goodness of fit), is very appealing.
2004 Understanding Series and Parallel Systems Reliability
For engineers to understand the statistical reasoning behind reliability block formulas for series and parallel systems and provide examples of the practical ways of using them. This knowledge will...
2004 Censored Data
Overview some statistical procedures, we illustrate them via several practical, numerical examples and we provide some references for further reading.
2004 Understanding Binomial Sequential Testing
This START sheet addresses double sampling plans and higher dimension sampling plans, namely sequential tests. Numerical and practical examples of sequential tests for attributes (pass/fail) data...
2004 The RMQSI Case - A Reasoned, Auditable Argument Supporting the Contention that a System Satisfies its RMQSI Requirements
Today's customers demand reliable products. Obviously, such demands must be reflected in the product specification and requirements. Historically RMQSI methods have depended upon the availability of...
2004 Quality Control Charts
Methods of statistical process control (SPC) have been in existence for over eighty years now in industrial statistics. SPC methods are used, among other things, to detect when a stable process,...