Enhanced Surface-to-Air Missile Simulation (ESAMS) is a computer program used to model the interaction between an airborne target and a surface-to-air missile (SAM) air defense system. Detailed data have been abstracted from intelligence information and incorporated into the model to provide comprehensive representation of radio frequency (RF) land-based and naval-based SAM systems. The user has the option of specifying the threat site layout in various ways, including rectangular grid site arrays, circular site arrays, or semi-circular arrays, or by specifying specific sites one-by-one. Missile fire control, guidance, aerodynamics, and movement are also patterned. The model details the characteristics of both ground and missile seeker radar. ESAMS models aircraft from their signature data and optional vulnerability data.
This simulation provides a one-on-one framework used to evaluate air vehicle survivability, estimate effectiveness, set requirements, and develop tactics. The ESAMS model simulates many elements of a SAM engagement, including RF radar performance, countermeasure algorithms, environmental factors, tactics, and endgame. ESAMS can execute simple, straight and level, or complex flight paths. The flight path generator application, BlueMax6, has been incorporated into ESAMS and can be invoked with an input parameter. Additionally, a user can specify that the aircraft execute a special set of maneuvers in reaction to specific event situations, such as a missile approach. The aircraft can also be instructed to make a final terminal maneuver to attempt to avoid the missile if impact appears imminent.
Further, the model can simulate various environmental effects, including atmosphere, terrain, multi-path, and clutter. ESAMS can simulate the effects of wind on both aircraft and missiles. The model uses either a curved or flat earth model for masking checks. ESAMS can be run with native (bald earth with a homogeneous surface) or digital terrain input. When native terrain is used, the model calculates its own back-scatter values. With digital terrain, the Ground RAdar Clutter Estimator (GRACE) is used to access site masking and generate back-scatter coefficients for site-specific terrain.